Citing References in Text
Each time you quote a source directly, paraphrase an idea, or refer to something that another person said or wrote, identify the original source by inserting the author’s last name and the date within the text of your paper.
- These arguments against standardized education (Duckworth, 1986) explore science as a process of discovery.
Each source you cite must also appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.
Page Numbers for Direct Quotations
Give page numbers for direct quotations.
- As Dewey (1938) noted, the educational continuum was united by this “connectedness in growth” (p. 75).
Note that any sentence punctuation comes after the closing parenthesis.
Quotations of 40 or More Words
- Display quotation in a free standing block of text.
- Omit quotation marks.
- Start on a new line.
- Indent whole block half an inch from the left margin.
- If there is another paragraph, indent the first line a half inch.
- Double space the entire quotation.
- After the final punctuation mark of the quoted source, add the citation in parentheses.