APA Citation Resources

APA Web Guide

Web documents have many of the same elements as print, but may not have page numbers, publication dates, or authors. It is important to state whatever information you have.


Provide as much of the following information as possible, including any volume or issue numbers for online periodicals:

  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of document. Title of Complete Work, xx, pp-pp. https://doi.dx.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of document. Title of Complete Work, xx, pp-pp. https://xxx.xxx

Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis).

  • Databases

    Citing Articles from Electronic Databases

    Include the author(s), year, title of the article, journal name, volume (issue), page number(s), DOI, or give the URL for the journal’s homepage. There is no need to include retrieval date or database name.

    A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique alphanumeric string which acts as a document’s persistent link to its location on the Internet. For more on DOI visit Crossref and doi.org.

    • Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, xx, pp-pp. https://doi.dx.org/:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
    • Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, xx, pp-pp. https://www.xxxxxxx

    Article With a DOI

    • Fox, R., Corretjer, O., & Webb, K. (2019). Benefits of foreign language learning and bilingualism: An analysis of published empirical research 2012–2019. Foreign Language Annals, 52(4), 699–726. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12424

    Article Without a DOI

  • Maps

    Google Maps

    Google. (n.d.). [Google map directions for driving from Bank Street College of Education to The Interchurch Center, New York, NY.]. Retrieved February 7, 2020, from https://goo.gl/maps/YwyMWE6P8A5RYieR6

    Dynamically created maps, e.g., Google, do not have titles, so describe the map in square brackets, and include a retrieval date.

    Online Maps

    New York City Campaign Finance Board. (n.d.). Individual contributions to participating 2017 candidates [Map]. Retrieved February 7, 2020 from http://bit.ly/3bjvIlz

    Use a URL shortener like bit.ly when the original URL is long and cumbersome.

  • Newspapers

    Online Newspaper

    Give the URL of the article, either the full link, (or a link for sharing).


    Give the exact date of the article. If it appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma (e.g, B1, B3, B5–B7).

    • Burns, A., & Martin, J. (2020, March 22). Mistakes and internal strife hobbled Sanders campaign. The New York Times, A1, A23.
    • Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, A1, A4.

    News Websites

    These are websites that act like a newspaper but do not have a print version, e.g., BBC News, Fox News, HuffPost. Note that the article’s title is italicized.

    Simon, K. (2020, March 20). Parents: It’s ok if you’re barely getting by right now. HuffPost. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/newspaper-article-references

  • Online Journals

    Online Journal Only

  • Websites

    Web Page Components
    Here is the pattern for creating a web page citation.

    Author Date Title Source
    Website name URL
    Author a. A., & Author B. B.

    Name of Group


    (2020, August).

    (2020, September 28).


    Title of work Site name https://xxxxxx

    Retrieved December 22, 2020, from https://xxxxxx

    Website as a Whole

    If you are referring to a website in its entirety, just refer to the name and website’s homepage address in the text of your paper. There is no need for a reference list entry.

    Part of a Website

    Cite in your text (Museum of Modern Art, n.d.)

    Part of a Website, No Author

    If there appears to be no author, look under the About tab on a website and try to find out, or infer the author. When the author and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

    Cite in your text (Autism Speaks, 2020)

  • YouTube Videos

    Screen Names

    These are an important part of YouTube videos. Include them in your citation, and leave them as they appear online (i.e., don’t change case). Include the year and date a video was posted (not the date it was viewed).

    Screen name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video]. Streaming service. http://xxxxx

    • Bank Street College of Education. (2020, February 10). Beyond the classroom at Bank Street School for Children.
      [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/GAQQuYHELjs

    Author Names

    If there is an author’s name include it along with the screen name in square brackets.

    Author, A. A. [screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video]. Streaming service. http://xxxxx

    • Schrock, A. [AndrewSchrock]. (2020, March 3). Father son skateboarding! / First real drop in!
      [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/j6VxQiilNe0

    Whenever you can, use the author’s real name. When this is not possible, use the screen name. The above example would be cited in-text as (Schrock, 2020).