APA Citation Resources

APA Web Guide

Web documents have many of the same elements as print, but may not have page numbers, publication dates, or authors. It is important to state whatever information you have.


Provide as much of the following information as possible, including any volume or issue numbers for online periodicals:

  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of document. Title of Complete Work, xx, pp-pp. https://doi.dx.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of document. Title of Complete Work, xx, pp-pp. https://xxx.xxx

Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis).

  • Databases

    Citing Articles from Electronic Databases

    Include the author(s), year, title of the article, journal name, volume (issue), page number(s), DOI, or give the URL for the journal’s homepage. There is no need to include retrieval date or database name.

    A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique alphanumeric string which acts as a document’s persistent link to its location on the Internet. For more on DOI visit Crossref and doi.org.

    • Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, xx, pp-pp. https://doi.dx.org/:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
    • Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, xx, pp-pp. https://www.xxxxxxx

    Article With a DOI

    • Fox, R., Corretjer, O., & Webb, K. (2019). Benefits of foreign language learning and bilingualism: An analysis of published empirical research 2012–2019. Foreign Language Annals, 52(4), 699–726. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12424

    Article Without a DOI

  • Maps

    Google Maps

    Google. (n.d.). [Google map directions for driving from Bank Street College of Education to The Interchurch Center, New York, NY.]. Retrieved February 7, 2020, from https://goo.gl/maps/YwyMWE6P8A5RYieR6

    Dynamically created maps, e.g., Google, do not have titles, so describe the map in square brackets, and include a retrieval date.

    Online Maps

    New York City Campaign Finance Board. (n.d.). Individual contributions to participating 2017 candidates [Map]. Retrieved February 7, 2020 from http://bit.ly/3bjvIlz

    Use a URL shortener like bit.ly when the original URL is long and cumbersome.

  • Newspapers

    Electronic Version

    Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs.

    • Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com


    Give the exact date of the article. If it appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma (e.g., pp. B1, B3, B5–B7). Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp.

    • Goodnough, A. (1999, November 10). Helping city schools bring a taste of the arts to students. The New York Times, p. B15.
    • Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
  • Online Journals

    Online Version of a Print Journal

    • Brookhart, S. M. (2008). Feedback that fits [Electronic version]. Educational Leadership. 65(4), 54-59. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/

    Online Journal Only

    • Yerrick, R., & Johnson, J. (2009). Meeting the needs of middle grade science learners through pedagogical and technological intervention. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. 9(3). Retrieved from http://www.citejournal.org/
  • Websites

    Website as a Whole

    If you are referring to a website in its entirety, just refer to the name and website’s homepage address in the text of your paper. There is no need for a reference list entry.

    • The Bank Street Bookstore is a wonderful website for finding that perfect children’s book (http://www.bankstreetbooks.com/).
    • President Obama uses Twitter (http://www.twitter.com/barackobama) to keep citizens up to speed on his initiatives.

    Part of a Website

    • Raimondo, J., & Cohen, E. (2003). Art safari: An adventure in looking, for children and adults. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. Retrieved from http://www.moma.org/interactives/artsafari/

    Part of a Website, No Author

    As there is no author, the title moves to the author position. Include the retrieval date and the section’s web address. Do not italicize the title.

    • IAN Research Findings: Regression. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.autismspeaks.org/news/news-item/ian-research-findings-regression

    Cite in your text the first few words of the title and and use double quotation marks (“IAN Research Findings,” 2008).

  • YouTube Videos

    Screen Names

    These are an important part of YouTube videos. Include them in your citation, and leave them as they appear online (i.e., don’t change case). Include the year and date a video was posted (not the date it was viewed).

    Screen name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

    • Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Ghost caught on surveillance camera [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dq1ms2JhYBI&feature=related

    Author Names

    If there is an author’s name include it along with the screen name in square brackets.

    Author, A. A. [screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

    • Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 (the haunting) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848

    Whenever you can, use the author’s real name. When this is not possible, use the screen name. The above examples would be cited in-text as (Bellofolletti, 2009; Apsolon, 2011).

    Video Blog Post

    In this case, the video is part of a blog and is not standalone. Note that the title of the video (like a chapter in a book) is not italicized.

    Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

    • Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs