APA Citation Resources

APA Reference List Guide

The purpose of a reference list is to provide enough unique information so a reader can retrieve listed items easily in a library search. When in doubt, provide more information rather than less.

  • Authors

    One Author

    List the author by last name first, then initial(s).

    • Luby, J. L. (2006). Handbook of preschool mental health: Development, disorders, and treatment. Guilford Press.

    Two Authors

    Write both authors’ last names, followed by initials. Place an ampersand (&) before the second author.

    • Hetzroni, O. E., & Shalahevich, K. (2018). Structure Mapping in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Levels of Information Processing and Relations to Executive Functions. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders48(3), 824–833. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3376-x

    Three to 20 Authors

    When there are  three to 20 authors write all the authors’ last names and first initials, and use an ampersand (&) before the last name.

    • Lightfoot, C., Cole, M., & Cole, S. (2013). The development of children (7th ed.). Worth Publishers.

    Twenty-one and More Authors

    Include the first 19 authors, followed by three ellipsis points (…), and add the last author.

    • Åkerlund, C., Amrein, K., Andelic, N., Andreassen, L., Anke, A., Antoni, A., Audibert, G., Azouvi, P., Azzolini, M. L., Bartels, R., Barzó, P., Beauvais, R., Beer, R., Bellander, B.-M., Belli, A., Benali, H., Berardino, M., Beretta, L., Blaabjerg, M., … Steyerberg, E. W. (in press). Machine learning algorithms performed no better than regression models for prognostication in traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2020.03.005

    An article that is not quite ready for publication is labeled in press, and is considered an online preview.

  • Dates

    Books & Journals

    Give in parentheses the year the work was published.

    • Levy, S. (2011). In the plex: How Google thinks, works, and shapes our lives. Simon & Schuster.

    Magazines, Newsletters, & Newspapers

    Give the year and the exact date of publication (month or month and day). If the date is given as a season give the year and season separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses.

    • Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). https://www.apa.org/monitor/2008/06/ideology
    • Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, A1, A4.

    No Date

    If no date is available write n.d. in parentheses.

    • O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135
  • eBooks

    EBSCOhost eBook Collection

    Treat eBooks the same way you would a book in print. There is no need to include information indicating the item is an eBook. If the eBook includes a DOI include that in your reference.

    • Burns, M. (2007). About teaching mathematics: A k-8 resource (3rd ed.). Math Solutions Publications.
    • Bergen, D., & Fromberg, D. P. (2015). Play from birth to twelve : Contexts, perspectives, and meanings (3rd ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315753201
    • Elliott, J., & Nicolson, R. (2016). Dyslexia : Developing the debate. Bloomsbury Academic. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781474233767
  • Editiors & Edited Books
    1. To refer to an edited book, put the editor’s names first and enclose the abbreviation (Ed.) or (Eds.) in parentheses after the last editor.
    2. Give initials and surnames for all editors, regardless of the number of editors.
      • Tate, G., & Corbett, E. P. J. (Eds.). (1988). The writing teacher’s sourcebook (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
      • Yarrow, L. J., & Messer, D. J. (1983). Motivation and cognition in infancy. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence: Infancy and early childhood (2nd ed., pp. 451-478). Plenum.
    3. When referring to a specific section of an edited book, use the abbreviation for page (p. or pp.).
    4. When an editor’s name is not in the author position, write the initial(s) first, then the last name (note the placement of “M. Lewis,” and “D. B. Berch, & M. M. Mazzocco” in the examples below).
    5. The publisher’s location for books is no longer required.
      • Donlan, C. (2007). Mathematical development in children with specific language impairments. In D. B. Berch, & M. M. Mazzocco (Eds.), Why is math so hard for some children?: The nature and origins of mathematical learning difficulties and disabilities (pp. 151-172). Paul H. Brookes.
  • Mental Measurements Yearbooks

    Entire Test Description (in print)

    Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scales. (2001). In B. S. Plake & J. C. Impara (Eds.), The fourteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 183-190). Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

    Individual Test Review (in print)

    Kaufman, N. L., & Kaufman, A. S. (2001). [Review of the test Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scales]. In B. S. Plake & J. C. Impara (Eds.), The fourteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 183-187). Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

  • Publication Information


    1. Give the name of the publisher as it appears in the work followed by a period.
    2. Use the spelling and capitalization as shown in the work (e.g., SAGE)
    3. Do not abbreviate the publisher’s name unless it appears like this in the work.
      • Wimmer, M. C., & Doherty, M. J. (2011). The development of ambiguous figure perception. Wiley
      • Ross, J., Anderson, J. R., & Campbell, R. N. (2011). I remember me: Mnemonic self-reference effects in preschool children. Wiley-Blackwell.
    4. If the work is published by an imprint or division, use the imprint or division as the publisher.
    5. Omit business words, such as Inc., Ltd., LLC.
    6. If there are two or more publishers listed, write then as they appear on the copyright page. Separate them with a semicolon.
    7. Do not include the publisher’s location.
    8. When the author and publisher are the same (e.g., a work from an organization website). Omit the publisher information to avoid repetition.
  • Theses


    Use the following format for a Bank Street master’s thesis.

    Print (IMPs prior to mid-2012)

    Author, A. A. (year). Title of master’s thesis (Unpublished master’s thesis). Name of Institution.

    Online (Electronic IMPs mid-2012 and onward)

    Author, A. A. (year). Title of master’s thesis (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from web address of catalog or institutional database.

  • Titles


    Write the title of a book as you would a sentence, i.e., the first word is capitalized, as are any proper names and, any words following a colon. The title is italicized.


    Write the title of the journal in italics with each word capitalized and the volume number (which in the example below is 29). The title of the article is in sentence case.

    • Phipps, C. B., & Post, P. B. (2020). The effect of child-centered play therapy on the externalizing behaviors of low-income male preschoolers: A single-case design study. International Journal of Play Therapy29(2), 74–85. https://doi.org/10.1037/pla0000115
  • Volumes & Editions


    Other information necessary for identification and retrieval (e.g., 2nd ed. or Vol.4) goes in parentheses right after the title without any period or comma separating this information from the title.

    • Solomon, A. (2012). Far from the tree : Parents, children and the search for identity. Scribner.
    • Solomon, A., & Calkhoven, L. (2017). Far from the tree: How children and their parents learn to accept one another… Our differences unite us (Young adult edition). Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers.


    If each issue of a journal begins with page 1, give the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. The issue and page numbers are not italicized.

  • DOI & URL

    Digital object identifiers (DOI) are very useful to readers outside the Bank Street community. DOIs take readers to the publisher’s website. They usually start with the number 10, e.g., 10.1007/978-94-6351-134-6. Uniform resource locaters (URL) serve the same function as DOIs by finding digital information on the internet.

    • If a book or an article has a DOI always include it in your reference entry
    • If a work has a DOI and a URL, use only the DOI
    • Prefix all DOIs with https://doi.org/
    • URLs  should link directly to the cited work whenever possible.


    Ellis, A. L. (Ed.). (2017). Transitioning children with disabilities: From early childhood through adulthood. Brill | Sense. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6351-134-6


    Charles, J., Gonzalez, M., & Sharrock, E. (2018). Coaching: How a focus on adult development leads to improvements in student learning. Bank Street College of Education. https://educate.bankstreet.edu/faculty-staff/34