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APA Web Guide

Web documents have many of the same elements as print documents, although with some adjustments, since web documents are so frequently moved or removed from a site. Web documents may not have page numbers, publication dates, authors, etc, but it is important to state whatever information you have. Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis).

  • Overview

    Citing References in the Body of the Paper

    Follow the author/date format as you would for a print resource. If you are citing a direct quote and there is no page number, use the name of the chapter or heading where the quote appears.

    Reference Lists and Bibliographies

    Provide as much of the following information as possible, including any volume or issue numbers for online periodicals:

    • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of document. Title of Complete Work, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
    • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of document. Title of Complete Work, xx, pp-pp. Retrieved from
  • Websites

    Website as a Whole

    If you are referring to a website in its entirety, just refer to the name and website's homepage address in the text of your paper. There is no need for a reference list entry.

    • The Bank Street Bookstore is a wonderful website for finding that perfect children's book (
    • President Obama uses Twitter ( to keep citizens up to speed on his initiatives.

    Part of a Website

    • Raimondo, J., & Cohen, E. (2003). Art safari: An adventure in looking, for children and adults. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. Retrieved from

    Part of a Website, No Author

    As there is no author, the title moves to the author position. Include the retrieval date and the section's web address. Do not italicize the title.

    • IAN Research Findings: Regression. (2012). Retrieved July 14, 2012, from

    Cite in your text the first few words of the title and and use double quotation marks ("IAN Research Findings," 2012).

  • Online Journals

    Online Version of a Print Journal

    • Brookhart, S. M. (2008). Feedback that fits [Electronic version]. Educational Leadership. 65(4), 54-59. Retrieved from

    Online Journal Only

    • Yerrick, R., & Johnson, J. (2009). Meeting the needs of middle grade science learners through pedagogical and technological intervention. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. 9(3). Retrieved from
  • Databases

    Citing Articles from Electronic Databases

    Include the author(s), year, title of the article, journal name, volume (issue), page number(s), DOI or give the URL for the journal's homepage. There is no need to include retrieval date or database name.

    A DOI (digital object identifer) is a unique alphanumeric string which acts as a document's persistent link to its location on the Internet. For more on DOI visit Crossref and

    1. Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
    2. Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, xx, pp-pp. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

    Article With a DOI

    • Hambly, C., & Fombonne, E. (2012). The Impact of Bilingual Environments on Language Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 42(7), 1342-1352. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1365-z

    Article Without a DOI

    • Zelden, C. L. (1999). From rights to resources: The southern federal district courts and the transformation of civil rights in education, 1968-1974. Akron Law Review, 39(471).
  • YouTube Videos

    Screen Names

    These are an important part of YouTube videos. Include them in your citation, and leave them as they appear online (i.e., don’t change case). Include the year and date a video was posted (not the date it was viewed).

    Screen name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

    • Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Ghost caught on surveillance camera [Video file]. Retrieved from

    Author Names

    If there is an author’s name include it along with the screen name in square brackets.

    Author, A. A. [screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

    • Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 (the haunting) [Video file]. Retrieved from

    Whenever you can, use the author's real name. When this is not possible, use the screen name. The above examples would be cited in-text as (Bellofolletti, 2009; Apsolon, 2011).

    Video Blog Post

    In this case, the video is part of a blog and is not standalone. Note that the title of the video (like a chapter in a book) is not italicized.

    Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

    • Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved
  • Newspapers

    Electronic Version

    Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs.

    • Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from


    Give the exact date of the article. If it appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma (e.g., pp. B1, B3, B5–B7). Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp.

    • Goodnough, A. (1999, November 10). Helping city schools bring a taste of the arts to students. The New York Times, p. B15.
    • Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

  • Maps

    Google Maps

    APA Style - Google Maps (Trinity College Library: Hartford, CT)

    Online Maps

    APA Style - Online Maps (Trinity College Library: Hartford, CT)